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Bantu peoples in South Africa

At the time KwaZulu-Natal was populated by dozens of small Zulu-speaking clans. Shaka integrated defeated clans into the Zulu, on a basis of bantuu equality, with promotions in the army and civil service being a matter of merit rather than circumstance of birth.

Whereas previous battles had been limited to relatively minor encounters, Shaka introduced the more deadly stabbing spear to replace the throwing spear, military encirclement to replace allowed retreat of the enemy, and the total destruction of lands to remove any means of sustenance for the enemy.

In most clans the eldest son inherited the office of his father. From banhu late 18th and early 19th centuries, there were two major areas of frictional contact between the white settlers and the Bantu speakers in Southern Africa.

Lwanga-Lunyiigo, Samwiri [WorldCat Identities]

By he had conquered a huge empire covering a expnasao area from the sea in the east to the Drakensberg mountains in the west, and from the Pongola River in the north to the Bashee river in the south, not far from the modern day expanao of East London.

Common exppansao the two powerful divisions of the Nguni and the Sotho—Tswana are patrilineal societies, in which the leaders formed the socio-political units. This page was last edited on 14 Julyat The alliance under his leadership survived Zwide’s first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill.


Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The Oxford Dictionary of South African English describes its contemporary usage in a racial context as “obsolescent and offensive” because of its strong association with white minority rule and the apartheid system.

As the southern groups of Bantu speakers migrated southwards two main groups emerged, the Nguni XhosaZuluNdebeleand Swaziwho occupied the eastern coastal plains, and the Sotho—Tswanawho lived on the interior plateau. Bantu-speaking peoples of South Africa. The people were divided into different clans or tribes which had their own functions, laws, and language. Borders were natural features such as rivers or mountains, which were not by any means fixed.

The smallest unit of the political organizational structure was the householdor kraalconsisting of a man, woman or women, and their children, as well as other relatives living in the same household. By many accounts Shaka used ruthless military force against his opponents, often adopting a scorched earth policy to destroy or displace civilian populations.

Língua portuguesa em África

This article needs additional citations for verification. Views Read Edit View history. In Shaka bantj to the Zulu throne at that stage the Zulu were merely one of the many clans.

These are divided as follows this list is not exhaustive:. After the death of the Mthethwa king Dingiswayo aroundat the hands of Zwidethe king of the Ndwandwe, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance. Similarly, food acquisition was by cultivation and hunting. Although the leader had much power, he was not above the law. At some stage after tertiary dispersal period a settlement at Great Zimbabwe was established as the capital of a trading empire. Within two years he had defeated Zwide at the Battle of Mhlatuze River and broken up the Ndwandwe alliance, some of whom in turn began a murderous campaign against other Nguni communities, setting in motion what has come to be known as Mfecanea mass migration of communities fleeing the Zulu.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A bqntu wall is formed out of vertical posts, which is sealed with mud and cow dung.

This repeated until the last brother died. Retrieved from ” https: The man was the head of the household and often had many wives, and was the family’s primary representative. The most important of these were the transformation of the army, thanks to innovative tactics and expanaao he conceived, and a showdown with the spiritual leadership, limiting the power of traditional healers, and effectively ensuring the subservience of the Zulu church to the state.

No meat of dogsapescrocodiles or snakes could be eaten. The term Bantu is derived from the word for “people” common to many of the Bantu languages.

Their food acquisition was primarily limited to agriculture and hunting ; generally the women were responsible for agriculture and the men drew for the hunt. Blacks from South Africa were at times officially called ” Bantu ” by the apartheid regime. Next was the eldest son of the original chieftain; then the oldest one of the brothers as the leader. The predominant indigenous population around the Cape expanxao made up of Khoisan peoples.

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Around Trekboers from the Cape encountered Bantu speakers around the Great Fish River and frictions arose between the two groups.