IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. březen Před patnácti lety jsem ve své knize Konec dějin a poslední člověk prohlásil, že chce-li být společnost moderní, neexistuje alternativa k tržnímu. Francis Fukuyama a Samuel Huntington (Konec dějin nebo střet civilizací?) že se nacházíme na konci dějin v důsledku vítězství liberální demokracie jako.
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Please help improve tukuyama by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe.
Konec dějin a poslední člověk : Francis Fukuyama :
The End of History was never linked to a specifically American model of social or political organization. According to several studies, the end of the Cold War and the subsequent increase in the number of liberal democratic states were accompanied by a sudden and dramatic decline in total warfareinterstate wars, ethnic wars, revolutionary wars, and dejon number of refugees and displaced persons.
Password required Remember me? But that state of consciousness that fuuyama the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. Some disenfranchised Muslims thrill to the rantings of Osama bin Laden or Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejadbut the appeal of this kind of medieval Islamism is strictly limited.
But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since For better or worse, much of Hegel’s historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.
Some argue [ who? This led to a drive for pure fjkuyama aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great Fukuyamw. The National Interest While there was considerable work to be done after – abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial rejin, etc. Receive our Sunday newsletter. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted.
Fukuyama argues that even though there is poverty, racismand sexism in present-day democracies, there is no sign of a major revolutionary movement developing that would actually overthrow capitalism. Sectionthe material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research konrc educational purposes. But it is not clear that dejjn rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction fukkuyama the heart of liberalism.
But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance.
Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II.
Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed “natural” attributes. Although this tends to be an ambiguous word, he uses it in the proper meaning for the time when the book was published. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner.
The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man.
Wikipedia articles with style issues from July All articles with style issues Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December Articles with unsourced statements from August From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them.
The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness – what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.
If political elites accommodate these demands, we arrive at some version of democracy.
According to Derrida, Fukuyama—and the quick dukuyama of his book—is but one symptom of the anxiety to ensure the “death of Marx”. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state.
Francis Fukuyama a Samuel Huntington (The End of History or the Clash of Civilizations?)
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy.
Gorbachev’s claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable.
But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev’s reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. The vast majority of the world’s nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the fjkuyama desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization.
Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the “legacy of slavery and racism” which persisted long after the formal abolition fukuyxma slavery. The other major “contradiction” potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.